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Art/Architecture: Modern Art and Architecture in Spanish Cities (CH3261)
Universidad Antonio Nebrija Madrid
Art; Architecture; Urban Planning
This course is an introduction to modern architecture through the study of great buildings and city development in Spain, mainly Madrid and Barcelona. Based on a framework of knowledge about the development of world modern architecture, focussing on outstanding architects and works since the last decades of the 19th Century to the present days. Particular emphasis will be made on the works of Gaudi, Saenz de Oiza, Moneo and Calatrava, and other building projected by famous European and American architects.
This course will examine the artistic movements and the architecture in Spain during the 20th century and the syllabus is organised in five major blocks of content
Composition of Final Grade:
1. 33% participation in class: active participation inside and outside the classroom will be
positively considered as well as knowledge about the subject.
2. 33% classwork and readings: students are required to do certain amount of homework and
hand in a number of papers throughout the course
3. 34% tests: There will be written exams or tests
Class attendance is mandatory. The final grade may be altered by non-attendance
A warning on plagiarism. When writing a research paper or an essay exam you must
identify your intellectual indebtedness to the authors you have read. This can be done
through footnotes, bibliography, or by making a direct reference to the scholar or author
in question. Failure to do so will be considered plagiarism.
2 BLOCKS OF CONTENT
I. INTRODUCTION TO ARCHITECTURE
II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND FORMATIVE STRANDS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE (1850-1918)
III. THE CRYSTALIZATION OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS (1918-1945)
IV. SUCCES AND SPREAD OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT (1945-75)
V. DIVERSITY, CHANGE AND CONTINUITY IN ARCHITECTURE IN RECENT
I. INTRODUCTION TO ARCHITECTURE
- Presentation of the course: Objectives, documents, working procedures, assessment, and initial questions.
- Introduction to architecture (1): Supporting and supported elements; building systems.
- Introduction to architecture (2): Classical orders of architecture in Ancient Greece and Rome
- How to look at buildings: Research and analysis of a building.
- Introduction to architecture (3): The problem of vaults in medieval Roman architecture. Stone engineering in Gothic art; the central role of ornament in Muslim architecture.
- Getting ready for research: Work groups and distribution of buildings and references.
- Classical tradition in European architecture. Spanish singularities
o Renaissance (15th and 16th centuries).
o Baroque (17th and early 18th centuries).
o Neoclassicism (Late18th and early 19th centuries).
MADRID WALK AROUND
1: Classical architecture in 16th to 18th Centuries
Starting: Plaza de la Villa (8 minutes walk from Metro “Sol”).
Finishing: Plaza Cibeles (Metro “Banco”, Línea 2)
- Examples of presentation of research work
II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND FORMATIVE STRANDS OF
- The changing society during the 19th century:
o The struggle for democracy.
o New customers and new demands of works of art;
- The growth of cities and new urban models
o Urban expansion and town planning. The model of Paris and other cities.
- The growth of cities and new urban models (cont.)
o Urban “ensanches” in Barcelona and Madrid.
o Utopia and urban models up to the 1920s. (“Ciudad Lineal”, “Garden cities” movement, etc.)
- Historicism and eclecticism (19th and early 20th Centuries):
o Classical and Gothic Revival.
o Architecture during the French Second Empire (Beaux – Arts architecture)
- Formative strands of modern architecture: Several routes (objectivism and subjectivism) searching for a new architecture that goes beyond the traditional historic forms:
The Chicago School, Art Nouveau, Avant-Garde mouvements.
- Iron architecture and the Chicago School:
o The engineering tradition and the iron architecture.
o The Chicago School (1880-1900)
o The first period in the work of Frank Lloyd Wright (1895-
- “Art Nouveau” and national Romanticism in Europe (1890-1910): Architects and buildings in Belgium, Scotland, France and Austria.
MADRID WALK AROUND 2:
19th Century architecture (Paseo del Prado):
Starting: Plaza Cibeles (Metro “Banco”, Línea 2)
Finishing: Estación de Atocha (Metro “Atocha Renfe”, Línea 1).
- Presentation by students of research work on several buildings(3-5)
- Art Nouveau (Modernismo) in Spain and Barcelona:
o General characteristics of Art Nouveau
o A particular development of Art Nouveau in Catalonia.
o Art Nouveau in other Spanish cities.
- The architectural work of Antoni Gaudí
o Gaudi´s genial personality
o His masterworks
- First “avant-garde” movements in Europe (1900-1920)
o Artistic “avant-garde”: the example of Cubism and other movements in modern painting.
o Expressionism and futurism
o First rationalist architecture and classicist reaction.
III. THE CRYSTALIZATION OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE
BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS (1918-1945)
- Main features and evolution of the modern movement during the preriod.
- German pioneers of modern architecture:
o Gropius and the Bauhaus
o Mies Van der Rohe
- Other pioneering schools (Der Stijl, Russian constructivism)
- The seminal work of Le Corbusier
o A vital personality.
o His theories and struggle for modern architecture
o Paradigmatic buildings and architectural evolution
- Spanish architecture in early 20th Century
o Historical background (1900-1936)
o Eclecticism, Art Nouveau and Regionalism.
o First rationalism and modern architecture in the 20s and 30s.
o The “Gran Via” of Madrid and the works of A. Palacios.
MADRID WALK AROUND 3:
Early 20th Century architecture (Gran Vía-Moncloa):
Starting: Plaza Cibeles (Metro “Banco”, Línea 2)
Finishing: Moncloa (Metro “Moncloa”, Líneas 6 and 3).
- Presentation by students of research work on several
buildings (3- 5)
- Modern-organic architecture by Frank Lloyd Wright
o An unusual biography and personal interpretation ofarchitecture.
o Master works and architectonic evolution (1918-1945)
- Modern alternatives to the industrial city
o Dutch experiences in the 20s.
o Le Corbusier´s “Ville Radieuse”
o Wrigt´s “Broadacre City”
o Lucio Costa´s poject for Brazilia
o Spanish proposals (the GATCPAC´s planning for Barcelona, the “Plan Zuazo” for Madrid North.
IV. SUCCES AND SPREAD OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT
- Dissemination and evolution of the “Modern International Style” until de crisis of the 70s:
o New independent countries. Economic urban growth.
o New developments and clichéd modern architecture.
- The works of “founders” in the 40s and 50s
o Gropius and Mies Van der Rohe in USA
o Late works of Frank Lloyd Wright (1945-1959)
- Late works of Le Corbusier (1945-65)
o Unité d´Habitation
o Religious works (Notre-Dame-du-Haut and La Tourette)
o Works at Chandigarh (India)
- A. Aalto and other Scandinavian architects:
o Aalto´s Master works
o Utzon´s Sidney Opera House
- Louis Khan and modern architecture in the USA
o L. Khan´s monumental buildings
o Standard architecture and technological improvements in higher skyscrapers.
o Scepticism and first criticisms towards the modern tradition.
- Dissemination of modern architecture in developing and
developed countries (Brazil, Japan, Europe).
o Brazil (O. Niemeyer, L. Costa)
o Japan (K. Tange)
- Spanish architecture during Franco´s period (1940-1975)
o Classicist and “Imperial” architecture in the 40s and 50s.
o The 60s: Economic development, social change and urban growth.
o Modern architecture in the 50s and 60s: racionalist and
organicist strands (Cabrero, Fisac, Sota, Bohigas,
Corrales, Molezún, Coderch, Sáenz de Oiza).
V. DIVERSITY, CHANGE AND CONTINUITY IN ARCHITECTURE
IN RECENT DECADES
- The debate of Postmodernism in late 70s and 80s: a new movement or a passing fashion?
o Reconstruccion and conservation of cities.
o R. Bofill, M.Graves, Ph. Johnson
o Neo-racionalism (Italian Tendenza)
- High-tech architecture and deconstruction
o R. Rogers, R. Piano, N. Foster, Jean Nouvel…
o Frank Gehry and other architects
- Recent tendencies in Spanish architecture
o O. Bohigas, Moneo, Navarro Baldweg, C. Ferrater
29 MADRID WALK AROUND 4:
Late 20th Century architecture (Nuevos Ministerios - Madrid Business Centre):
Starting: (Metro “Nuevo Ministerios”, Líneas 6 and 10)
Finishing: (Metro “Begoña” Línea 10).
- Presentations by students of research work on several buildings (3-5)
30. FINAL EXAM
BASIC BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES:
- CURTIS, William J.R. (1982, 1996): Modern Architecture since 1900, Phaidon
Press, N. York.
The major outline and central ideas of this course are mainly based on this book.
The period studied goes from 1870s to 1990s.
The author´s theoretical framework, his detailed and deep analysis of buildings and
the rich and elegant writting make altogether a highly recommende book for lovers
of modern architecture.
- BENEVOLO, Leonardo (1974, 1987): Historia de la arquitectura moderna,
(first published in Italy, 1960), Ed. Gustavo Gili, Barcelona.
Since its publication a major classical book on modern architecture. Gthe period
studied spands from early 19th century to 1980s. central ideas of this course are
based on this book.
- CHUECA GOITIA, Fernando (19 -2001): Historia de la arquitectura española,
Fund. Cultural Sta. Teresa, Avila (2 vol.)
The most classical book on the history of Spanish architecture. Published only in
Spanish, it is a very well documented and written work, but unfortunately the
author stops his history in 1936 (the beginning of the Spanish Civil War).
- CAPITEL, N. et al. (2000): Arquitectura del siglo XX: España, Soc. Estatal
Hannover 2000, S. A. and Tanais Ed.
- CHING, Francis D.K. (1995): A Visual Dictionary of Architecture, J. Wiley&
- LEWIN, Alicia (2001): Diccionario bilingüe de términos de arte. Bilingual
Dictionary of Art Terms, Consejería de Educación, Comunidad de Madrid.
· Additional bibliography:
- HERNÁNDEZ LEÓN, Juan Miguel and LLIMARGAS, M. (1987): Arquitectura
española contemporánea. La otra modernidad, Lunwerg Ed.
This is a book on 12 major architecture works build up by Spanish architects in the
last decade (1997-2007), such as the Scotish Parliament, the harbour terminal at
· Web sites:
- World Architecture